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NIHIL NOVUM SUB SOLE

1001 deeds, sayings, curiosities and anecdotes of the ancient world

A 2000 years old Handbook for an election campaign

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We are in one of several election campaigns that decide issues that make up our lives. In this case it's European Parliament elections. Also in the ancient world, there were elections for public office and, even certain differences with the current time there were, many similarities are also too numerous, until to the point that some people will stay really surprised.

In Roman republica there was  an entire political career called "cursus honorum". To access the highest office, that of consul (equivalent to President of the Republic), the man  had to have previously passed by the aedile (Councillor), Quaestor (Head of Finance), Praetor (responsible for justice) and finally consul. Between the performance of them, it was intermediate times, because certain minimum age for each charge was required. Each of these magistracies  was made at the meeting (there were several) for. Just the Roman citizens voted. On another occasion I will deal with these issues more extensively. The term of office was annual.

Well, there were no political parties like these present, but there were social groups or classes with their interests and powerful families. Nor had a specific campaign period; the candidate made  visible his interest and abilities in ordinary life throughout the year. The electoral propaganda, mainly based on direct contact with citizens, also used  election posters to influence the decision of the voters. This is definitely a surprise to the modern citizen who is uninformed about  the ancient world.

I've talked in a recent article about all that. See http://en.antiquitatem.com/pompeii-electoral-graffiti-aedile-iivir .

I am going to present a exceptional document,  absolute present, valid even for candidates and political parties of today, that  again justifies the slogan of this blog "nihil novum sub sole".  It is a real guide to election campaign, "Commentariolum petitionis" which we could translate as "Notes to a candidacy" or "Notes about your candidacy." or "Handbook for an election campaign"

It is a booklet in the form of letter  that Quintus Cicero sent to his brother, Marcus Cicero , on the occasion of his candidacy for the consulate in 64 B.C. in competition  with L. S. Catilina y C. Antonius.

The important magistracies as the consulate and membership in the Senate were held by traditional powerful families. They  who are not from that social class and pretend access to the Senate are called "homo novus", "new man" in politics and this is the case of Cicero, for whom the campaign will not be easy.

It has been doubted and still it is doubt the authorship of the brother of Cicero. This is not the occasion to discuss the arguments for or against. If it is  from the time of Cicero or from a few subsequent years, as it is advocated by some, it really interesting and surprising is the content of a "campaign guide" which in any is  2,000 years  old and shows how similar we are to our ancestors, the Romans .

I will extract some of the essential ideas of this little work, but I will offer the full text in English  and Latin, advising the gentle reader to make the small effort of reading a few dozen pages that do not cease to amaze you.

Comments and advice of a brother

Do not trust your own intelligence; to prepare the campaign will be very useful

Take it seriously and think who you are, what you want and in which city you are a candidate.
Make use yourself especially the friends and acquaintances you have. If you need something indicate them that this it's time to return the favor.

Earn the benefit of all people, starting with the most influential. Everyone must to think you have always thought like them.

Attract young people because it gives you prestige.

Highlight the negative aspects of the personality and history of your adversaries;  strive and work and you will earn them.

You have to appear as worthy of the office to which you aspire. And think that many will envy you and others do not want anything right. So you must use all your intelligence and effort, but convince everyone that you are your best choice and you do not even want them bad or your opponents.

It is essential to the support of friends and think you  that when the election the group of friends is much broader than that of normal life; anyone willing to vote for you, he is your friend. In campaign you will have the opportunity to make many new friends.

Think that people vote based on the benefit they get, on hope that you generate for them and on the sympathy with which you are seen and they move even by small favors and details.

Let them see that you value all your support, that you have them in high esteem and that they can always count on you.

Go and meet everyone by name so that they see in you a friend.

Always appear in public in the company of many friends, people of any condition of life and age. Never show up alone. Give all them to understand  that you are aware of your help.

But you must also be aware of your enemies, the false, the envious.

Use shameless flattery, because if in normal life it is inappropriate, in policy it is necessary.

Go to the whole people for that:  no one refused support because you have not asked him.

Do not deny anyone anything completely. People prefer a white lie to a flat refusal.

Have no shame in promising many things; then they do not claim them. Besides the promise is for the future and you never know what can happen. People always will understand that you do not make it because circumstances do not allow it, but you'd want to keep your promises.

Make sure that your campaign is all pomp, glitter, prestige, greatness.

Everybody think you're the best solution for the republic and who better defend their interests.

You also need to know to survive in Rome, where you have to endure the arrogance, malice, rudeness, arrogance, hatred and discomfort of many. Also you will must  to learn to adapt to such a variety of situations, opinions and interests.

Your opponents must to understand that you will fight with all your strength to achieve your goal and you're going to be vigilant to avoid corruption and vote buying and therefore they must be careful.

Full text:

Handbook for an election campaign

Although you have all the accomplishments within the reach of human genius, experience, or acuteness, yet I thought it only consistent with my affection to set down in writing what occurred to my mind while thinking, as I do, day and night on your canvass, not with the expectation that you would learn anything new from it, but that the considerations on a subject, which appeared to be disconnected and without system, might be brought under one view by a logical arrangement.
Consider what the state is : what it is you seek: who you are that seek it. Almost every day as you go down to the forum you should say to yourself, "I am a novus homo," "I am a candidate for the consulship," "This is Rome." For the "newness" of your name you will best compensate by the brilliancy of your oratory. That has ever carried with it very great political distinction. A man who is held worthy of defending consulars cannot be thought unworthy of the consulship. Wherefore, since your reputation in this is your starting-point, since whatever you are, you are from this, approach each individual case with the persuasion that on it depends as a whole your entire reputation. See that those aids to natural ability, which I know are your special gifts, are ready for use and always available; and remember what Demetrius wrote about the hard work and practice of Demosthenes; and, finally, take care that both the number and rank of your friends are unmistakable. For you have such as few novi homines have had—all the publicani, nearly the whole equestrian order, many municipal towns specially devoted to you, many persons who have been defended by you, men of every order, many collegia, and, besides these, a large number of the rising generation who have become attached to you in their enthusiasm for rhetoric, and, finally, your friends who visit you daily in large numbers and with such constant regularity. See that you retain these advantages by reminding these persons, by appealing to them, and by using every means to make them understand that this, and this only, is the time for those who are in your debt to shew their gratitude, and for those who wish for your services in the future to place you under an obligation. It also seems possible that a "new man" may be much assisted by the fact that he has the good wishes of men of high rank, and especially of consulars. It is a point in your favour that you should be thought worthy of this position and rank by the very men to whose position and rank you are wishing to attain. All these men must be canvassed with care, agents must be sent to them, and they must be convinced that we have always been at one with the Optimates in our political sentiments, that we have never been demagogues in the very least : that if we seem ever to have said anything in the spirit of that party, we did so with the view of attracting Cn. Pompeius, that we might have the man of the greatest influence either actively on our side in our canvass, or at least not opposed to us. Furthermore, take pains to get on your side the young men of high rank, or retain the affection of those you already have. They will contribute much to your political position. You have very many; make them feel how much you think depends on them: if you induce those to be positively eager who are merely not disinclined, they will be of very great advantage to you.
[2]
It is also a great set-off to your "newness," that the nobles who are your competitors are of a such a kind that no one can venture to say that their nobility ought to stand them in greater stead than your high character. For instance, who could think of P. Galba and L. Cassius, though by birth of the highest rank, as candidates for the consulship? You see, therefore, that there are men of the noblest families, who from defect of ability are not your equals. But, you will say, Catiline and Antonius are formidable. Rather I should say that a man of energy, industry, unimpeachable character, great eloquence, and high popularity with those who are the ultimate judges, should wish for such rivals—both from their boyhood stained with blood and lust, both of ruined fortunes. Of one of them we have seen the property put up for sale, and actually heard him declare on oath that at Rome he could not contend with a Greek or obtain an impartial tribunal. We know that he was ejected from the senate by the judgment of genuine censors : in our praetorship we had him as a competitor, with such men as Sabidius and Panthera to back him, because he had no one else to appear for him at the scrutiny. Yet in this office he bought a mistress from the slave market whom he kept openly at his house. Moreover, in his canvass for the consulship, he has preferred to be robbing all the innkeepers, under the disgraceful pretext of a libera legatio, rather than to be in town and supplicate the Roman people. But the other! Good heavens what is his distinction ? Is he of equally noble birth ? No. Is he richer? No. In manliness, then? How do you make that out? Why, because while the former fears his own shadow, this man does not even fear the laws!—A man born in the house of a bankrupt father, nurtured in the society of an abandoned sister, grown to manhood amidst the massacre of fellow citizens, whose first entrance to public life was made by the slaughter of Roman knights For Sulla had specially selected Catiline to command that band of Gauls which we remember, who shore off the heads of the Titinii and Nannii and Tanusii : and while with them he killed with his own hands the best man of the day, his own sister's husband, Quintus Caecilius, who was a Roman eques, a man belonging to no party, always quiet by inclination, and then so from age also.
[3]
Why should I speak of him as a candidate for the consulship, who caused M. Marius, a man most beloved by the Roman people, to be beaten with vine-rods in the sight of that Roman people from one end of the City to the other—forced him up to the tomb—rent his frame with every kind of torture, and while he was still alive and breathing, cut off his head with his sword in his right hand, while he held the hairs on the crown of his head with his left, and carried off his head in his own hand with streams of blood flowing through his fingers ? A man who afterwards lived with actors and gladiators on such terms that the former ministered to his lust, the latter to his crimes—who never approached a place so sacred or holy as not to leave there, even if no actual crime were committed, some suspicion of dishonour founded on his abandoned character—a man whose closest friends in the senate were the Curii and the Annii, in the auction rooms the Sapalae and Carvilii, in the equestrian order the Pompilii and Vettii—a man of such consummate impudence, such abandoned profligacy, in fine, such cunning and success in lasciviousness, that he corrupted young boys when almost in the bosoms of their parents? Why should I after this mention Africa to you, or the depositions of the witnesses? They are well known—read them again and again yourself. Nevertheless, I think that I should not omit to mention that he left that court in the first place as needy as some of the jurors were before the trial, and in the second place the object of such hatred, that another prosecution against him is called for every day. His position is such that he is more likely to be nervous even if you do nothing, than contemptuous if you start any proceedings.
What much better fortune in your canvass is yours than that which not long ago fell to the lot of another "new man", Gaius Caelius! He had two men of the highest rank as competitors, but they were of such a character that their rank was the least of their recommendations—genius of the highest order, supreme modesty, very numerous public services, most excellent methods of conducting a canvass, and diligence in carrying them out. And yet Caelius, though much inferior in birth, and superior in hardly anything, beat one of them. Wherefore, if you do what your natural ability and studies, which you have always pursued, enable you to do, what the exigencies of your present position require, what you are capable of doing and are bound to do, you will not have a difficult struggle with competitors who are by no means so conspicuous for their birth as notorious for their vices. For what citizen can there be found so ill-affected as to wish by one vote to draw two daggers against the Republic?
[4]
Having thus set forth what advantages you have and might have to set against your "newness," I think I ought now to say a word on the importance of what you are trying for. You are seeking the consulship, an office of which no one thinks you unworthy, but of which there are many who will be jealous. For, while by birth of equestrian rank, you are seeking the highest rank in the state, and yet one which, though the highest, reflects much greater splendour on a man of courage eloquence and pure life than on others. Don't suppose that those who have already held that office are blind to the political position you will occupy, when once you have obtained the same. I suspect, however, that those who, though born of consular families, have not attained the position of their ancestors will unless they happen to he strongly attached to you feel 'some' jealousy. Even "new men" who have been praetors I think, unless under great obligations to you, will not like to be surpassed by you in official rank. Lastly, in the populace itself, I am sure it will occur to you how many are envious, how many, from the precedents of recent years, are averse to "new men." It must also needs be that some are angry with you in consequence of the causes which you have pleaded. Nay, carefully consider this also, whether, seeing that you have devoted yourself with such fervour to the promotion of Pompey's glory you can suppose certain men to be your friends on that account. 2 Wherefore, seeing that you are seeking the highest place in the state, and at the same time that there do exist sentiments opposed to you, you must positively employ every method and all your vigilance, labour, and attention to business.
[5]
Again, the canvass for office resolves itself into an activity of two kinds, of which one is concerned with the loyalty of friends, the other with the feelings of the people. The loyalty of friends must be secured by acts of kindness and attention by length of time, and by an easy and agreeable temper. But this word "friends" has a wider application during a canvass than in other times of our life. For whosoever gives any sign of an inclination to you, or habitually visits at your house must be put down in the category of friends. But yet the most advantageous thing is to be beloved and pleasant in the eyes of those who are friends on the more regular grounds of relationship by blood or marriage, of membership of the same club or of some close tie or other. Farther, you must take great pains that, in proportion as a man is most intimate and most closely connected with your household, he should love you and desire your highest honour—as, for instance, your tribesmen, neighbours, clients, and finally your freedmen and even your slaves for nearly all the talk which forms one's public reputation emanates from domestic sources. In a word, you must secure friends of every class : for show—men conspicuous for their office or name, who, even if they do not give any actual assistance in canvassing, yet add some dignity to the candidate; to maintain your just rights—magistrates, consuls first and then tribunes to secure the votes of the centuries—men of eminent popularity. Those who either have gained or hope to gain the vote of a tribe or century, or any other advantage, through your influence, take all pains to collect and secure. For during recent years men of ambition have exerted themselves with all their might and main to become sure of getting from their tribesmen what they sought. Do you also do your very best, by every means in your power, to make such men attached to you from the bottom of their hearts and with the most complete devotion. If, indeed, men were as grateful as they ought to be, all this should be ready to your hand, as I trust in fact that it is. For within the last two years you have put under an obligation to you four clubs of men who have the very greatest influence in promoting an election, those of C. Fundanius, Q. Gallius, C. Cornelius, C. Orchivius. When they committed the defence of these men to you, I am acquainted with what their clubsmen undertook and promised you to do, for I was present at the interview. Wherefore you must insist at the present juncture on exacting from them your due by reminding them, appealing to them, solemnly assuring them, and taking care that they thoroughly understand that they will never have any other opportunity of shewing their gratitude. I cannot doubt that these men, from hope of your services in the future as well as from the benefits recently received, will be roused to active exertions. And speaking generally, since your candidature is most strongly supported by that class of friendships which you have gained as a counsel for the defence, take care that to all those, whom you have placed under this obligation to you, their duty should in every case be clearly defined and set forth. And as you have never been in any matter importunate with them, so be careful that they understand that you have reserved for this occasion all that you consider them to owe you.
[6]
But since men are principally induced to shew goodwill and zeal at the hustings by three considerations—kindness received, hope of more, personal affection and good feeling—we must take notice how best to take advantage of each of these. By very small favours men are induced to think that they have sufficient reason for giving support at the poll, and surely those you have saved (and their number is very large) cannot fail to understand that, if at this supreme crisis they fail to do what you wish, they will never have anyone's confidence. And though this is so, nevertheless they must be appealed to, and must even be led to think it possible that they, who have hitherto been under an obligation to us, may now put us under an obligation to them. Those, again, who are influenced by hope (a class of people much more apt to be scrupulously attentive) you must take care to convince that your assistance is at their service at any moment, and to make them understand that you are carefully watching the manner in which they perform the duties they owe you, and to allow no mistake to exist as to your clearly perceiving and taking note of, the amount of support coming from each one of them. The third class which I mentioned is that of spontaneous and sincere friends, and this class you will have to make more secure by expressions of your gratitude; by making your words tally with the motives which it shall appear to you influenced them in taking up your cause ; by shewing that the affection is mutual ; and by suggesting that your friendship with them may ripen into intimacy and familiar intercourse. In all these classes alike consider and weigh carefully the amount of influence each possesses, in order to know both the kind of attention to pay to each, and what you are to expect and demand from each. For certain men are popular in their own neighbourhoods and towns ; there are others possessed of energy and wealth, who, even if they ,have not heretofore sought such popularity, can yet easily obtain it at the moment for the sake of one to whom they owe or wish to do a favour. Your attention to such classes of men must be such as to shew them that you clearly understand what is to be expected from each, that you appreciate what you are receiving, and remember what you have received. There are, again, others who either have no influence or are positively disliked by their tribesmen, and have neither the spirit nor the ability to exert themselves on the spur of the moment : be sure you distinguish between such men, that you may, not be disappointed in your expectation of support by placing over-much hope on some particular person.
[7]
But although you ought to rely on and be fortified by, friendships already gained and firmly secured, yet in the course of the canvass itself very numerous and useful friendships are acquired. For among its annoyances a candidature has this advantage : you can without loss of dignity, as you cannot in other affairs of life, admit whomsoever you choose to your friendship to whom if you were at any other time to offer your society, you would be thought guilty of an eccentricity; whereas during a canvass, if you don't do so with many, and take pains about it besides, you would be thought to be no use as a candidate at all. Moreover, I can assure you of this, that there is no one unless he happens to be bound by some special tie to some one of your rivals, whom you could not induce, if you took pains, to earn your affection by his good services, and to seize the opportunity of putting you under an obligation—let him but fully understand that you value him highly, that you really mean what you say, that he is making a good investment, and that there will accrue from it not only a brief and electioneering friendship, but a firm and lasting one. There will be no one, believe me, if he has anything in him at all, who will let slip this opportunity offered of establishing a friendship with you, especially when by good luck you have competitors whose friendship is one to be neglected or avoided, and who not only are unable to secure what I am urging you to secure, but cannot even make the first step towards it. For how should Antonius make the first step towards attaching people to himself, when he cannot even call them, unaided, by their proper names? I, for one, think that there can be no greater folly than to imagine a man solicitous to serve you whom you don't know by sight. Extraordinary indeed must be the fame, the political position and extent of the public services of that man whom entire strangers, without supporters to back him, would elect to office. That a man without principle or energy, without doing any good service, and without ability, lying under a cloud of discredit, and without friends, should beat a man fortified with the devotion of a numerous circle and by the good opinion of all, cannot possibly occur except from gross negligence.
[8]
Wherefore see that you have the votes of all the centuries secured to you by the number and variety of your friends. The first and most obvious thing is that you should embrace the Roman senators and knights, and the active and popular men of all the other orders. There are many city men of good business habits, there are many freedmen engaged in the forum who are popular and energetic: these men try with all your might both personally and by common friends, as far as you can, to make eager in your behalf; seek them out, send agents to them, shew them that they are putting you under the greatest obligation. After that review the entire city, all colleges, districts, neighbourhoods. If you attach to yourself the leading men of these, you will by their means easily keep a hold upon the multitude. When you have done that, take care to have in your mind a chart of all Italy laid out according to the tribe of each town, and ]earn it by heart, so that you may not allow any municipium, colony, prefecture, or, in a word, any spot in Italy to exist, in which you have not a sufficient foothold. Inquire also for and trace out individuals in every region, inform yourself about them, seek them out, strengthen their resolution, secure that in their own neighbourhoods they shall canvass for you, and be as it were candidates in your interest. They will wish for you as a friend, if they once see that their friendship is an object with you. Make sure that they do understand this by directing your speech specially to this point. Men of country towns, or from the country, think themselves in the position of friends if we of the city know them by name : if, however, they think that they are besides securing some protection for themselves, they do not let slip the opportunity of being obliging. Of such people others in town, and above all your rivals, don't so much as know the existence : you know about them and will easily recognize them, without which friendship is impossible. Nor is such recognition enough (though it is a great thing) unless some hope of material advantage and active friendship follows, for your object is not to be looked upon as a mere "nomenclator," but as a sincere friend also. So when you have both got the favour of these same men in the centuries, who from the means they have taken to secure their personal objects enjoy most popularity among their fellow tribesmen; and have made those all desirous of your success who have influence in any section of their tribe, owing to considerations attaching to their municipality or neighbourhood or college, then you may allow yourself to entertain the highest hopes.
Again, the centuries of the knights appear to me capable of being won over, if you are careful, with considerably more ease. Let your first care be to acquaint yourself with the knights ; for they are comparatively few : then make advances to them, for it is much easier to gain the friendship of young men at their time of life. Then again, you have on your side the best of the rising generation, and the most devoted to learning. Moreover, as the equestrian order is yours, they will follow the example of that order, if only you take the trouble to confirm the support of those centuries, not only by the general good affection of the order, but also by the friendships of individuals. Finally, the hearty zeal of the young in canvassing for votes, appearing at various places, bringing intelligence, and being in attendance on you in public are surprisingly important as well as creditable.
[9]
And since I have mentioned "attendance," I may add that you should be careful to see large companies every day of every class and order; for from the mere number of these a guess may well be made as to the amount of support you are likely to have in the campus itself. Such visitors are of three kinds: one consists of morning callers who come to your house, a second of those who escort you to the forum, a third of those who attend you on your canvass. In the case of the morning callers, who are less select and, according to the prevailing fashion, come in greater numbers, you must contrive to make them think that you value even this slight attention very highly. Let those who shall come to your house see that you notice it; shew your gratification to such of their friends as will repeat it to them ; frequently mention it to the persons themselves. It often happens that people, when they visit a number of candidates, and observe that there is one who above the rest notices these attentions, devote themselves to him ; leave off visiting the others ; little by little become devoted to one instead of being neutral, and from sham turn out real supporters. Furthermore, carefully remember this, if you have been told or have discovered that a man who has given you his promise is "dressing for the occasion," as the phrase goes, make as though you had neither heard it nor knew it ; if any offers to clear himself to you, because he thinks himself suspected, assert roundly that you have never doubted his sincerity and have no right to doubt it. For the man who thinks that he is not giving satisfaction can never be a friend. You ought, however, to know each man's real feeling, in order to settle how much confidence to place in him.
Secondly, of those who escort you to the forum: since this is a greater attention than a morning call, indicate and make clear that it is still more gratifying to you, and as far as it shall lie in your power go down to the forum at fixed times. The daily escort by its numbers produces a great impression and confers great personal distinction. The third class is that of numbers perpetually attending you on your canvass. See that those who do so spontaneously understand that you regard yourself as for ever obliged by their extreme kindness : from those, on the other hand, who owe you this attention, frankly demand that, as far as their age and business allow, they should constantly be in personal attendance, and that those who are unable to accompany you in person should find relations to take their place in performing this duty. I am very anxious, and think it extremely important, that you should always be surrounded by large numbers. Besides, it confers a great reputation and great distinction to be accompanied by those who by your exertions have been defended, preserved, and acquitted in the law courts. Put this demand fairly before them, that, since by your means and without any payment some have retained their property, others their honour, others their civil existence and entire fortunes, and since there will never be any other time at which they can shew their gratitude, they should remunerate you by this service.
[10]
And since the point now in discussion is entirely a question of the loyalty of friends, I must not, I think, pass over one caution. Deception, intrigue, and treachery are everywhere. This is not the time for a formal disquisition on the indications by which a true friend may be distinguished from a false: al that is in place now is to give you a hint. Your exalted character has compelled many to pretend to be your friends while really jealous of you. Wherefore remember the saying of Epicharmus, "the muscle and bone of wisdom is to believe nothing rashly." Again, when you have got the feelings of your friends in a sound state, you must then acquaint yourself with the attitude and varieties of your detractors and opponents. There are three : first, those whom you have attacked second, those who dislike you without definite reason ; third, those who are warm friends of your competitors. As to those attacked by you while pleading a friend's cause against them, frankly excuse yourself; remind them of the ties constraining you; give them reason to hope that you will act with equal zeal and loyalty in their cases, if they become your friends. As for those who dislike you without reason, do your best to remove that prejudice either by some actual service, or by holding out hopes of it, or by indicating your kindly feeling towards them. As for those whose wishes are against you owing to friendship for your competitors, gratify them also by the same means as the former, and, if you can get them to believe it, shew that you are kindly disposed to the very men who are standing against you.
[11]
Having said enough about securing friendships, I must now speak on another department of a candidate's task, which is concerned with the conciliation of the people. This demands a knack of remembering names, insinuating manners, constant attendance, liberality, the power of setting a report afloat and creating a hopeful feeling in the state. First of all, make the faculty you possess of recognizing people conspicuous, and go on increasing and improving it every day. I don't think there is anything so popular or so conciliatory. Next, if nature has denied you some quality, resolve to assume it, so as to appear to be acting naturally. Although nature has great force, yet in a business lasting only a few months it seems probable that the artificial may be the more effective. For though you are not lacking in the courtesy which good and polite men should have, yet there is great need of a flattering manner which, however faulty and discreditable in other transactions of life, is yet necessary during a candidateship. For when it makes a man worse by truckling, it is wrong; but when only more friendly, it does not deserve so harsh a term ; while it is absolutely necessary to a candidate, whose face and expression and style of conversation have to be varied and accommodated to the feelings and tastes of everyone he meets. As for "constant attendance," there is no need of laying down any rule, the phrase speaks for itself. It is, of course, of very great consequence not to go away anywhere; but the real advantage of such constant attendance is not only the being at Rome and in the forum, but the pushing one's Canvass assiduously, the addressing oneself again and again to the same persons, the making it impossible (as far as your power goes) for anyone to say that he has not been asked by you, and earnestly and carefully asked. Liberality is, again, of wide application ; it is shewn in regard to the management of your private property, which, even if it does not actually reach the multitude, yet, if spoken of with praise by friends, earns the favour of the multitude. It may also be displayed in banquets, which you must take care to attend yourself and to cause your friends to attend, whether open ones or those confined to particular tribes. It may, again, be displayed in giving practical assistance, which I would have you render available far and wide : and be careful therein to be accessible to all by day and night, and not only by the doors of your house, but by your face and countenance, which is the door of the mind for, if that shews your feelings to be those of reserve and concealment, it is of little good to have your house doors open. For men desire not only to have promises made them, especially in their applications to a candidate, but to have them made in a liberal and complimentary manner. Accordingly, it is an easy rule to make, that you should indicate that whatever you are going to do you will do with heartiness and pleasure; it is somewhat more difficult, and rather a concession to the necessities of the moment than to your inclination, that when you cannot do a thing you should [either promise] or put your refusal pleasantly : the latter is the conduct of a good man, the former of a good candidate. For when a request is made which we cannot grant with honour or without loss to ourselves, for instance, if a man were to ask us to appear in a suit against a friend, a refusal must be given in a gentlemanly way: you must point out to him that your hands are tied, must shew that you are exceedingly sorry, must convince him that you will make up for it in other ways.
[12]
I have heard a man say about certain orators, to whom he had offered his case, "that he had been better pleased with the words of the one who declined, than of the one who accepted." So true it is that men are more taken by look and words than by actual services. [This latter course, however, you will readily approve : the former it is somewhat difficult to recommend to a Platonist like you, but yet I will have regard for your present circumstances.] For even those to whom you are forced by any other tie to refuse your advocacy may yet quit you mollified and with friendly feelings. But those to whom you only excuse a refusal by saying that you are hindered by the affairs of closer friends, or by cases more important or previously undertaken, quit you with hostile feelings, and are one and all disposed to prefer an insincere promise to a direct negative from you. C. Cotta, a master in the art of electioneering, used to say that, "so long as the request was not directly contrary to moral duty, he used to promise his assistance to all to bestow it on those with whom he thought it would be most advantageously invested: he did not refuse anyone, because something often turned up to prevent the person whom he promised from availing himself of it, and it often also occurred that he himself was less engaged than he had thought at the time nor could anyone's house be full of suitors who only undertook what he saw his way to perform: by some accident or other the unexpected often happens, while business, which you have believed to be actually in hand, from some cause or other does not come off: moreover, the worst that can happen is that the man to whom you have made a false promise is angry." This last risk, supposing you to make the promise, is uncertain, is prospective, and only affects a few; but, if you refuse, the offence given is certain, immediate, and more widely diffused. For many more ask to be allowed to avail themselves of the help of another than actually do so. Wherefore it is better that some of them should at times be angry with you in the forum than all of them perpetually at your own house : especially as they are more inclined to be angry with those who refuse, than with a man whom they perceive to be prevented by so grave a cause as to be Compatible with the desire to fulfil his promise if he possibly could. But that I may not appear to have abandoned my own classification, since the department of a candidate's work on which I am now dilating is that which refers to the populace, I insist on this, that all these observations have reference not so much to the feelings of friends as to popular rumour. Though there is something in what I say which comes under the former head—such as answering with kindness, and giving zealous assistance in the business and the dangers of friends—yet in this part of my argument I am speaking of the things which enable you to win over the populace: for instance, the having your house full of visitors before daybreak, the securing the affection of many by giving them hope of your support the contriving that men should leave you with more friendly feelings than they came, the filling the ears of as many as possible with the most telling words.
[13]
For my next theme must be popular report, to which very great attention must be paid. But what I have said throughout the foregoing discourse applies also to the diffusion of a favourable report: the reputation for eloquence; the favour of the publicani and equestrian order; the goodwill of men of rank; the crowd of young men; the constant attendance of those whom you have defended; the number of those from municipal towns who have notoriously come to Rome on your account the observations which men make in your favour—that you recognize them, address them politely, are assiduous and earnest in canvassing; that they speak and think of you as kind and liberal; the having your house full of callers long before daybreak ; the presence of large numbers of every class ; that your look and speech give satisfaction to all, your acts and deeds to many; that everything is done which can be done by hard work, skill, and attention, not to cause the fame arising from all these displays of feeling to reach the people, but to bring the people itself to share them. You have already won the city populace and the affections of those who control the public meetings by your panegyric of Pompey, by undertaking the cause of Manilius, by your defence of Cornelius. We must not let those advantages be forgotten, which hitherto no one has had without possessing at the same time the favour of the great. We must also take care that everyone knows that Cn. Pompeius is strongly in your favour, and that it emphatically suits his purpose that you should win your election. Lastly, take care that your whole candidature is full of éclat, brilliant, splendid, suited to the popular taste, presenting a spectacle of the utmost dignity and magnificence. See also, if possible, that some new scandal is started against your competitors for crime or looseness of life or corruption, such as is in harmony with their characters.
Above all in this election you must see that the Republic entertains a good hope and an honourable opinion of you. And yet you must not enter upon political measures in senate-house and public meeting while a candidate: you must hold such things in abeyance, in order that from your lifelong conduct the senate may judge you likely to be the supporter of their authority; the Roman knights, along with the loyalists and wealthy, judge you from your past to be eager for peace and quiet times; and the people think of you as not likely to be hostile to their interests from the fact that in your style of speaking in public meetings, and in your declared convictions, you have been on the popular side.
[14]
This is what occurred to me to say on the subject of these two morning reflexions, which I said you ought to turn over in your mind every day as you went down to the forum: "I am a novus homo," "I am a candidate for the consulship." There remains the third, "This is Rome," a city made up of a combination of nations, in which many snares, much deception, many vices enter into every department of life: in which you have to put up with the arrogant pretensions, the wrong-headedness, the ill-will, the hauteur, the disagreeable temper and offensive manners of many. I well understand that it requires great prudence and skill for a man, living among social vices of every sort, so many and so serious, to avoid giving offence, causing scandal, or falling into traps, and in his single person to adapt himself to such a vast variety of character, speech, and feeling. Wherefore, I say again and again, go on persistently in the path you have begun: put yourself above rivalry in eloquence; it is by this that people at Rome are charmed and attracted, as well as deterred from obstructing a man's career or inflicting an injury upon him. And since the chief plague spot of our state is that it allows the prospect of a bribe to blind it to virtue and worth, be sure that you are fully aware of your own strength, that is, understand that you are the man capable of producing in the minds of your rivals the strongest fear of legal proceeding and legal peril. Let them know that they are watched and scrutinized by you : they will be in terror of your energy, as well as of your influence and power of speech, and above all of the affection of the equestrian order towards you. But though I wish you to hold out this before them, I do not wish you to make it appear that you are already meditating an action, but to use this terror so as to facilitate the gaining of your object: and, in a word, in this contest strain every nerve and use every faculty in such a way as to secure what we seek. I notice that there are no elections so deeply tainted with corruption, but that some centuries return men closely connected with them without receiving money. Therefore, if we are as vigilant as the greatness of our object demands, and rouse our well-wishers to put forth all their energies; and if we allot to men of influence and zeal in our service their several tasks; if we put before our rivals the threat of legal proceedings ; if we inspire their agents with fear, and by some means check the distributors, it is possible to secure either that there shall be no bribery or that it shall be ineffectual.
These are the points that I thought, not that I knew better than you, but that I could more easily than you—in the pressing state of your present engagements—collect together and send you written out. And although they are written in such terms as not to apply to all candidates for office, but to your special case and to your particular election, yet I should be glad if you would tell me of anything that should be corrected or entirely struck out, or that has been omitted. For I wish this little essay "on the duties of a candidate" to be regarded as complete in every respect.

(Cicero. The Letters of Cicero; the whole extant correspondence in chronological order, in four volumes. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. London. George Bell and Sons. 1908-1909.)

QUINTUS MARCO FRATRI S. D.
   I. 1. Etsi tibi omnia suppetunt ea, quae consequi ingenio aut usu homines aut diligentia possunt, tamen amore nostro non sum alienum arbitratus ad te perscribere ea, quae mihi veniebant in mentem dies ac noctes de petitione tua cogitanti, non ut aliquid ex iis novi addisceres, sed ut ea, quae in re dispersa atque infinita viderentur esse, ratione et distributione sub uno aspectu ponerentur. [Quamquam plurimum natura valet, tamen videtur in paucorum mensum negotio posse simulatio naturam vincere.] Civitas quae sit cogita, quid petas, qui sis. 2. Prope quotidie tibi hoc ad forum descendenti meditandum est: "novus sum, consulatum peto, Roma est." Nominis novitatem dicendi gloria maxime sublevabis: semper ea res plurimum dignitatis habuit; non potest, qui dignus habetur patronus consularium, indignus consulatu putari. Quamobrem, quoniam ab hac laude proficisceris et, quidquid es, ex hoc es, ita paratus ad dicendum venito, quasi in singulis causis iudicium de omni ingenio tuo futurum sit. 3. Eius facultatus adiumenta, quae tibi scio esse seposita, ut parata ac prompta sint cura--et saepe, quae de Demosthenis studio et exercitatione scripsit Demetrius, recordare--, deinde ut amicorum et multitudo et generea appareant; habes enim ea, quae non multi homines novi habuerunt: omnes publicanos, totum fere equestrem ordinem, multa propria municipia, multos abs te defensos homines cuiusque ordinis, aliquot collegia, praeterea studio dicendi conciliatos plurimos adolescentulos, quotidianam amicorum assiduitatem et frequentiam: 4. haec cura ut teneas commendando et rogando et omni ratione efficiendo, ut intelligant, qui debent tua causa, referendae gratiae, qui volunt, obligandi tui tempus sibi aliud nullum fore. Etiam hoc multum videtur adiuvare posse novum hominem: hominum nobilium voluntas et maxime consularium; prodest, quorum in locum ac numerum pervenire velis, ab iis ipsis illo loco ac numero dignum putari. 5. Hi rogandi omnes sunt diligenter et ad eos allegandum est persuadendumque iis nos semper cum optimatibus de re publica sensisse, minime populares fuisse; si quid locuti populariter videamur, id nos eo consilio fecisse, ut nobis Cn. Pompeium adiungeremus, ut eum, qui plurimum posset, aut amicum in nostra petitione haberemus aut certe non adversarium. 6. Praeterea adolescentes nobiles elabora ut habeas vel ut teneas studiosos [tui], quos habes: multum dignitatis afferent. Plurimos habes: perfice, ut sciant, quantum in iis putes esse. Quod si adduxeris, ut ii, qui non nolunt, cupiant, plurimum proderunt.
   II. 7. Ac multum etiam novitatem tuam adiuvat, quod eiusmodi nobiles tecum petunt, ut nemo sit, qui audeat dicere plus illis nobilitatem quam tibi virtutem prodesse oportere. Nam P. Galbam et L. Cassium summo loco natos quis est qui petere consulatum putet oportere? vides igitur amplissimis ex familiis homines, quod sine nervis sint, tibi pares non esse. 8. "At Catilina et Antonius molesti sunt." Immo homini navo, industrio, innocenti, diserto, gratioso apud eos, qui res iudicant, optandi competitores ambo a pueritia sicarii, ambo libidinosi, ambo egentes. Eorum alterius bona proscripta vidimus, vocem denique audivimus iurantis se Romae iudicio aequo cum homine Graeco certare non posse, ex senatu eiectum scimus [, optima vero censorum existimatione]; in praetura competitorem habuimus amico Sabidio et Panthera, cum alios, ad tabulam quos poneret, non haberet, quo tamen in magistratu amicam, quam domi palam haberet, de machinis emit; in petitione autem consulatus caupones omnes compilare per turpissimam legationem maluit quam adesse et populo Romano supplicare. 9. Alter vero, di boni! quo splendore est? Primum nobilitate eadem. Num maiore re? Non, sed virtute. Quamobrem? Quod inanius umbram suam metuit, hic ne leges quidem, natus in patris egestate, educatus in sororis stupris, corroboratus in caede civium, cuius primus ad rem publicam aditus in equitibus Romanis occidendis fuit--nam illis, quos meminimus, Gallis, qui tum Titiniorum ac Nanniorum ac Tanusiorum capita demetebant, Sulla unum Catilinam praefecerat--, in quibus ille hominem optimum, Q. Caecilium, sororis suae virum, equitem Romanum, nullarum partium, cum semper natura, tum etiam aetate iam quietum, suis manibus occidit.
   III. 10. Quid ego nunc dicam petere eum consulatum, qui hominem carissimum populo Romano, M. Marium inspectante populo Romano vitibus per totam urbem ceciderit, ad bustum egerit, ibi omni cruciatu lacerarit, vivo stanti collum gladio sua dextera secuerit, cum sinistra capillum eius a vertice teneret, caput sua manu tulerit, cum inter digitos eius rivi sanguinis fluerent? qui postea cum histrionibus et cum gladiatoribus ita vixit, ut alteros libidinis, alteros facinoris adiutores haberet, qui nullum in locum tam sanctum ac tam religiosum accessit, in quo non, etiamsi aliis culpa non esset, tamen ex sua nequitia dedecoris suspicionem relinqueret, qui ex curia Curios et Annios, ab atriis Sapalas et Carvilios, ex equestri ordine Pompilios et Vettios sibi amicissimos comparavit, qui tantum habet audaciae, tantum nequitiae, tantum denique in libidine artis et efficacitatis, ut prope in parentum gremiis praetextatos liberos constuprarit? Quid ego nunc tibi de Africa, quid de testium dictis scribam? Nota sunt, et ea tu saepius legito; sed tamen hoc mihi non praetermittendum videtur, quod primum ex eo iudicio tam egens discessit, quam quidem iudices eius ante illud iudicium fuerunt, deinde tam invidiosus, ut aliud in eum iudicium quotidie flagitetur. Hic se sic habet, ut magis timeat, etiamsi quierit, quam ut contemnat, si quid commoverit. 11. Quanto melior tibi fortuna petitionis data est quam nuper homini novo, C. Caelio! ille cum duobus hominibus ita nobilissimis petebat, ut tamen in iis omnia pluris essent quam ipsa nobilitas: summa ingenia, summus pudor, plurima beneficia, summa ratio ac diligentia petendi; ac tamen eorum alterum Caelius, cum multo inferior esset genere, superior nulla re paene, superavit. 12. Quare tibi, si facies ea, quae natura et studia, quibus semper usus es, largiuntur, quae temporis tui ratio desiderat, quae potes, quae debes, non erit difficile certamen cum iis competitoribus, qui nequaquam sunt tam genere insignes quam vitiis nobiles; quis enim reperiri potest tam improbus civis, qui velit uno suffragio duas in rem publicam sicas destringere?
   IV. 13. Quoniam, quae subsidia novitatis haberes et habere posses, exposui, nunc de magnitudine petitionis dicendum videtur: consulatum petis, quo honore nemo est quin te dignum arbitretur, sed multi, qui invideant; petis enim homo ex equestri loco summum locum civitatis atque ita summum, ut forti homini, diserto, innocenti multo idem ille honos plus amplitudinis quam ceteris afferat. Noli putare eos, qui sunt eo honore usi, non videre, tu, cum idem sis adeptus, quid dignitatis habiturus sis; eos vero, qui consularibus familiis nati locum maiorum consecuti non sunt, suspicor tibi, nisi si qui admodum te amant, invidere; etiam novos homines praetorios existimo, nisi qui tuo beneficio vincti sunt, nolle abs te se honore superari. 14. Iam in populo quam multi invidi sint, quam multi consuetudine horum annorum ab hominibus novis alienati, venire tibi in mentem certo scio; esse etiam nonnullos tibi iratos ex iis causis, quas egisti, necesse est. Iam illud tute circumspicito, quod ad Cn. Pompeii gloriam augendam tanto studio te dedidisti, num quos tibi putes ob eam causam esse amicos. 15. Quamobrem, cum et summum locum civitatis petas et videas esse studia, quae tibi adversentur, adhibeas necesse est omnem rationem et curam et laborem et diligentiam.
   V. 16. Et petitio magistratuum divisa est in duarum rationum diligentiam, quarum altera in amicorum studiis, altera in populari voluntate ponenda est. Amicorum studia beneficiis et officiis et vetustate et facilitate ac iucunditate naturae parta esse oportet; sed hoc nomen amicorum in petitione latius patet quam in cetera vita; quisquis est enim, qui ostendat aliquid in te voluntatis, qui colat, qui domum ventitet, is in amicorum numero est habendus; sed tamen, qui sunt amici ex causa iustiore cognationis aut affinitatis aut sodalitatis aut alicuius necessitudinis, iis carum et iucundum esse maxime prodest. 17. Deinde, ut quisque est intimus ac maxime domesticus, ut is amet et quam amplissimum esse te cupiat, valde elaborandum est, [tum] ut tribules, ut vicini, ut clientes, ut denique liberti, postremo etiam servi tui; nam fere omnis sermo ad forensem famam a domesticis emanat auctoribus. 18. Denique sunt instituendi cuiusque generis amici: ad speciem homines illustres honore ac nomine, qui etiamsi suffragandi studia non navant, tamen afferunt petitori aliquid dignitatis, ad ius obtinendum magistratus, ex quibus maxime consules, deinde tribuni pl., ad conficiendas centurias homines excellenti gratia. Qui abs te tribum aut centuriam aut aliquod beneficium aut habeant aut sperent, eos prorsus magno opere et compara et confirma; nam per hos annos homines ambitiosi vehementer omni studio atque opera elaborarunt, ut possent a tribulibus suis ea, quae peterent, impetrare: hos tu homines, quibuscumque poteris rationibus, ut ex animo atque ex illa summa voluntate tui studiosi sint, elaborato. 19. Quod si satis grati homines essent, haec tibi omnia parata esse debebant, sicuti parata esse confido; nam hoc biennio quattuor sodalitates hominum ad ambitionem gratiosissimorum tibi obligasti, M. Fundanii, Q. Gallii, C. Cornelii, C. Orchivii: horum in causis ad te deferendis quid tibi eorum sodales receperint et confirmarint, scio, nam interfui; quare hoc tibi faciendum est, hoc tempore ut ab iis quod debent exigas saepe commonendo, rogando, confirmando, curando ut intelligant nullum tempus aliud se umquam habituros referendae gratiae: profecto homines et spe reliquorum tuorum officiorum et [iam] recentibus beneficiis ad studium navandum excitabuntur. 20. Et omnino, quoniam eo genere amicitiarum petitio tua maxime munita est, quod ex causarum defensionibus adeptus es, fac, ut plane iis omnibus, quos devinctos tenes, descriptum ac dispositum suum cuique munus sit, et, quemadmodum nemini illorum molestus ulla in re umquam fuisti, sic cura, ut intelligant omnia te, quae ab illis tibi deberi putaris, ad hoc tempus reservasse.
   VI. 21. Sed, quoniam tribus rebus homines maxime ad benevolentiam atque haec suffragandi studia ducuntur, beneficio, spe, adiunctione animi ac voluntate, animadvertendum est, quemadmodum cuique horum generi sit inserviendum. Minimis beneficiis homines adducuntur, ut satis causae putent esse ad studium suffragationis, nedum ii, quibus saluti fuisti, quos tu habes plurimos, non intelligant, si hoc tuo tempore tibi non satisfecerint, se probatos nemini umquam fore. Quod cum ita sit, tamen rogandi sunt atque etiam in hanc opinionem adducendi, ut, qui adhuc nobis obligati fuerint, iis vicissim nos obligari posse videamur. 22. Qui autem spe tenentur, quod genus hominum multo etiam est diligentius atque officiosius, iis fac ut propositum ac paratum auxilium tuum esse videatur, denique ut spectatorem te suorum officiorum esse intelligant diligentem, ut videre te plane atque animadvertere, quantum a quoque proficiscatur, appareat. 23. Tertium illud genus est studiorum voluntarium, quod agendis gratiis, accommodandis sermonibus ad eas rationes, propter quas quisque studiosus tui esse videbitur, significanda ergo illos pari voluntate, adducenda amicitia in spem familiaritatis et consuetudinis confirmari oportebit. Atque in iis omnibus generibus iudicato et perpendito, quantum quisque possit, ut scias et quemadmodum cuique inservias et quid a quoque exspectes ac postules. 24. Sunt enim quidam homines in suis vicinitatibus et municipiis gratiosi, sunt diligentes et copiosi, qui etiamsi antea non studuerunt huic gratiae, tamen ex tempore elaborare eius causa, cui debent aut voluit, facile possunt: his hominum generibus sic inserviendum est, ut ipsi intelligant te videre, quid a quoque exspectes, sentire, quid accipias, meminisse, quid acceperis; sunt autem alii, qui aut nihil possunt aut etiam odio sunt tribulibus suis nec habent tantum animi aut facultatis, ut enitantur ex tempore: hos ut internoscas, videto, ne spe in aliquo maiore posita praesidii parum comparetur.
   VII. 25. Et, quamquam partis ac fundatis amicitiis fretum ac munitum esse oportet, tamen in ipsa petitione amicitiae permultae ac perutiles comparantur; nam in ceteris molestiis habet hoc tamen petitio commodi, ut possis honeste, quod in cetera vita non queas, quoscumque velis adiungere ad amicitiam, quibuscum si alio tempore agas, ut te utantur, absurde facere videare, in petitione autem nisi id agas et cum multis et diligenter, nullus petitor esse videare. 26. Ego autem tibi hoc confirmo, esse neminem, nisi aliqua necessitudine competitorum alicui tuorum sit adiunctus, a quo non facile, si contenderis, impetrare possis, ut suo beneficio promereatur, se ut ames et sibi ut debeas, modo ut intelligat te magni aestimare ex animo agere, bene se ponere, fore ex eo non brevem et suffragatoriam, sed firmam et perpetuam amicitiam. 27. Nemo erit, mihi crede, in quo modo aliquid sit, qui hoc tempus sibi oblatum amicitiae tecum constituendae praetermittat, praesertim cum tibi hoc casus afferat, ut ii tecum petant, quorum amicitia aut contemnenda aut fugienda sit, et qui hoc, quod ego te hortor, non modo assequi, sed ne incipere quidem possint. 28. Nam qui incipiat Antonius homines adiungere atque invitare ad amicitiam, quos per se suo nomine appellare non possit? mihi quidem nihil stultius videtur quam existimare esse eum studiosum tui, quem non noris. Eximiam quandam gloriam et dignitatem ac rerum gestarum magnitudinem esse oportet in eo, quem homines ignoti nullis suffragantibus honore afficiant; ut quidem homo nequam, iners, sine officio, sine ingenio, cum infamia, nullis amicis hominem plurimorum studio atque omnium bona existimatione munitum praecurrat, sine magna culpa negligentiae fieri non potest.
   VIII. 29. Quamobrem omnes centurias multis et variis amicitiis cura ut confirmatas habeas. Et primum, id quod ante oculos est, senatores equitesque Romanos, ceterorum ordinum navos homines et gratiosos complectere. Multi homines urbani industrii, multi libertini in foro gratiosi navique versantur: quos per te, quos per communes amicos poteris, summa cura, ut cupidi tui sint, elaborato: appetito, allegato, summo beneficio te affici ostendito. 30. Deinde habeto rationem urbis totius: collegiorum omnium, pagorum, vicinitatum: ex iis principes ad amicitiam tuam si adiunxeris, per eos reliquam multitudinem facile tenebis. Postea totam Italiam fac ut in animo ac memoria tributim descriptam comprehensamque habeas, ne quod municipium, coloniam, praefecturam, locum denique Italiae ne quem esse patiare, in quo non habeas firmamenti quod satis esse possit, 31. perquiras et investiges homines ex omni regione, eosque cognoscas, appetas, confirmes, cures, ut in suis vicinitatibus tibi petant et tua causa quasi candidati sint. Volent te amicum, si tuam a te amicitiam expeti videbunt: id ut intelligant, oratione ea, quae ad eam rationem pertinet, habenda consequere. Homines municipales ac rusticani, si nomine nobis noti sunt, in amicitia esse se arbitrantur; si vero etiam praesidii se aliquid sibi constituere putant, non amittunt occasionem promerendi. Hos ceteri et maxime tui competitores ne norunt quidem: tu et nosti et facile cognosces, sine quo amicitia esse non potest. 32. Neque id tamen satis est, tametsi magnum est, si non consequatur spes utilitatis atque amicitiae, ne nomenclator solum, sed amicus etiam bonus esse videare. Ita cum et hos ipsos, propter suam ambitionem qui apud tribules suos plurimum gratia possunt, [tui] studiosos in centuriis habebis et ceteros, qui apud aliquam partem tribulium propter municipii aut vicinitatis aut collegii rationem valent, cupidos tui constitueris, in optima spe esse debebis. 33. Nam equitum centuriae multo facilius mihi diligentia posse teneri videntur. Primum cognoscito equites; pauci enim sunt: deinde appetito; multo enim facilius illa adolescentulorum ad amicitiam aetas adiungitur, deinde habes tecum ex iuventute optimum quemque et studiosissimum humanitatis, tum autem, quod equester ordo tuus est, sequuntur illi auctoritatem ordinis, si abs te adhibetur ea diligentia, ut non ordinis solum voluntate, sed etiam singulorum amicitiis eas centurias confirmatas habeas, nam studia adolescentulorum in suffragando, in obeundo, in nuntiando, in assectando mirifice et magna et honesta sunt.
   IX. 34. Et, quoniam assectationis mentio facta est, id quoque curandum est, ut quotidiana cuiusque generis et ordinis et aetatis utare frequentia; nam ex ea ipsa copia coniectura fieri poterit, quantum sis in ipso campo virium ac facultatis habiturus. Huius autem rei tres partes sunt: una salutatorum, altera deductorum, tertia assectatorum. 35. In salutatoribus, qui magis vulgares sunt et hac consuetudine, quae nunc est, plures veniunt, hoc efficiendum est, ut hoc ipsum minimum officium eorum tibi gratissimum esse videatur: qui domum tuam venient, iis significato te animadvertere; eorum amicis, qui illis renuntient, ostendito, saepe ipsis dicito. Sic homines saepe, cum obeunt plures competitores et vident unum esse aliquem, qui haec officia maxime animadvertat, ei se dedunt, deserunt ceteros, minutatim ex communibus proprii, ex fucosis firmi suffragatores evadunt. Iam illud teneto diligenter, si eum, qui tibi promiserit, audieris fucum, ut dicitur, facere velle aut senseris, ut te id audisse aut scire dissimules, si qui tibi se purgare volet, quod suspectum esse se arbitretur, affirmes te de illius voluntate numquam dubitasse nec debere dubitare; is enim, qui se non putat satisfacere, amicus nullo modo potest esse. Scire autem oportet, quo quisque animo sit, ut,

   
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